The first study of how personal traits affect driver distraction finds that young men, extroverted or neurotic people, and people who drive more often are more likely to report being distracted during driving, while older women and those who feel they could control their distracted behavior are less likely to report distraction. The study also proposes future directions for interventions to reduce distracted driving.
Opioid pain relievers can be extremely effective in relieving pain, but can carry a high risk of addiction and ultimately overdose when breathing is suppressed and stops. Scientists have discovered a way to separate these two effects -- pain relief and breathing -- opening a window of opportunity to make effective pain medications without the risk of respiratory failure.
While simulation platforms have been used to train surgeons before they enter an actual operating room (OR), few studies have evaluated how well trainees transfer those skills from the simulator to the OR. Now, a study that used noninvasive brain imaging to evaluate brain activity has found that simulator-trained medical students successfully transferred those skills to operating on cadavers and were faster than peers who had no simulator training.
Researchers find that the relationship between prairie vole couples suffers when the male has access to alcohol, but his female partner doesn't - similar to what has been observed in human couples. The researchers also found changes in a specific brain region in the male voles. The results could help researchers find strategies to overcome the negative effects of alcohol on human relationships.
Astrocytes, the supporting cells of the brain, could play a significant role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), according to a new study. This is the first time researchers discovered a direct association between astrocytes and AD.
Advanced clinical trials are underway for at least 10 investigational therapies that have shown promise in slowing or blocking development of Alzheimer's disease, creating hope that a preventive strategy may be in reach. But a new study warns that the U.S. health care system lacks the capacity to rapidly move such a treatment into wide clinical use, a shortcoming that could leave millions of people without access to transformative care if such a breakthrough occurs.
Humans have roughly as many bacterial cells in their bodies as human cells, and most of those bacteria live in the gut. New research released today reveals links between the gut microbiome -- the population of microorganisms living in the gastrointestinal tract -- and brain diseases such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's, including potential new ways to track and treat these diseases.
Contrast has an impact on the optokinetic reflex, which enables us to clearly perceive the landscape from a moving train. Researchers have now shown that visual features that modulate this ability are encoded in the retina.
Making decisions that require weighing pros and cons of two choices is dramatically affected by chronic stress, neuroscientists have discovered. In a study of rats and mice, they found stressed animals were far likelier to choose high-risk, high-payoff options. They also found that impairments of a specific brain circuit underlie this abnormal decision making.
Paralyzed rats implanted with engineered tissue containing human stem cells were able to walk independently and regained sensory perception in their hind legs and tail. The implanted rats also show some degree of healing in their spinal cords. The research demonstrates the great potential of stem cells to treat spinal cord injury.
Chimps show increased latencies to feed, and tendencies to maintain greater distances from possible contaminants and/or outright refusals to consume food in test conditions, hinting at the origins of disgust in humans.